The SimulationExperimentView plugin can be used to run CellML (i.e. a system of ODEs or DAEs) and SED-ML files, as well as COMBINE archives. However, OpenCOR only supports a subset of SED-ML, so only SED-ML files and COMBINE archives generated by OpenCOR are guaranteed to work.
The following topics are covered:
Upon opening a CellML file, OpenCOR checks that it can be used for simulation. If it cannot, a message describing the issue is shown:
It consists of two main parts, the first of which allows you to customise the simulation, the solver(s) and the model parameters, as well as to specify which graphs to plot. The second part is used to plot the requested graphs. In the Parameters section, all the model parameters have an icon associated with them to highlight their type:
To simulate a model, you need to provide some information about the simulation itself, i.e. its starting point, ending point and point interval. Then, you need to specify the solver(s) that you want to use. The solvers available to you depend on which solver plugins you selected, as well as on the type of your model (i.e. ODE or DAE). If you are dealing with an ODE model and all the solver plugins are selected, then CVODE, forward Euler, Heun, and the second-order and fourth-order of Runge-Kutta are available to you:
Each solver comes with its own set of properties, which can be customised.
For example, if you select
Euler (forward), you see that it has only one property (
You can start the simulation by pressing
F9 or by clicking on the button.
Then, or before, you can add a graph.
All the model parameters are listed to the bottom-left of the view, grouped by components in which they were originally defined.
To add a graph, right click on a model parameter and select against which other model parameter you want it to be plotted.
For example, to create a graph for
V (from the
membrane component) against the variable of integration (i.e. time since the simulation properties are expressed in milliseconds), you would do the following:
From there, you can get the information associated with the graph by double clicking on it:
Model property is used to associate the graph with a particular file.
By default, it has a value of
Current, which means that the graph is associated with the current file.
However, you can explicitly associate it with another one.
The icon is shown next to the check box, if the association cannot be done, and next to the
Y properties to highlight which model parameter(s) could not be found in the other file.
The icon indicates that the graph is not locked, i.e. its
Model property has a value of
Current, while the icon is used when a graph is associated with a specific file.
Y properties can be modified either by editing their value or by right clicking on them and selecting another model parameter from the context menu, which can also be used to add or remove a graph.
Back to the simulation, you can see that it failed with several model parameters having a value of
nan (i.e. not a number).
This is because the solver is not properly set up: its
Step property is too big.
If you set it to
0.01 milliseconds, reset all the model parameters (by clicking on the button), clear the simulation data (by clicking on the button) and restart the simulation, then you get:
Roughly the same trace can be obtained using the
However, the simulation is so quick to run that you most probably do not have time to see its progress.
Between the and buttons, there is a wheel that you can use to add a short delay between the plotting of two data points.
Thus, by using a value of
100,000 (or a bigger/smaller value, depending on the speed of your computer), you can run the simulation and pause it at a point of interest:
Now, you can modify any of the model parameters identified by either the or icon (i.e. a state or a constant).
Thus, if you set
g_Na_max (from the
sodium_channel component) to
0 milliS_per_cm2, you get:
If you want, you can export some or all of the simulation data to a BioSignalML or a CSV file. To do so, click on the button. In the case of BioSignalML, you are asked to provide some (optional) information, as well as specify which model parameters you want to export:
In the case of CSV, you only need to specify the model parameters you want to export:
You might have noticed that the bottom graph panel has a blue vertical line to its left.
This is to indicate that it is the currently selected graph panel (a graph panel can be selected by clicking on it).
Something else that you might have noticed is that the Graphs section is now empty.
This is because there are currently no graphs associated with the graph panel.
Just for illustration, you can create a graph to plot
V (from the
membrane component) against
V' (also from the
To simulate a DAE model is similar to simulating an ODE model, except that OpenCOR also needs to solve one or several systems of non-linear algebraic equations (e.g. with
So far, we have only simulated CellML 1.0 models, but you can also simulate CellML 1.1 models, i.e. models that import units and/or components from other models (e.g. with
Each simulation is run in its own thread, which means that several simulations can be run at the same time. Simulations running in the background display a small progress bar in the top tab bar while the foreground simulation uses the main progress bar at the bottom of the view:
An important aspect of modelling is reproducibility. To that end, a simulation can be exported to SED-ML by clicking on the button. The export can then be done either to a SED-ML file or a COMBINE archive, both of which can then be re-run by OpenCOR and any SED-ML capable software (e.g. SED-ML Web Tools).
A SED-ML file (or a COMBINE archive) contains all the information needed to reproduce a simulation, i.e. a reference to the model (or even the model itself in the case of a COMBINE archive; the referenced model can be opened by clicking on the button), the parameters of the simulation, the solver and its properties, the number of graph panels, and the graphs to be plotted in each graph panel.
Thus, once open, a simulation can be re-run by pressing
F9 or by clicking on the button (e.g. with
Please note that changes to model parameters (either before or in the middle of a simulation) are not currently supported, and are therefore ignored, if present.
By default, the line of a graph is two-pixel wide and blue, as can be seen when plotting
i_Na against the variable of integration using
Subsequent graphs use a different line colour.
For example, if you plot
i_Leak against the variable of integration, you get:
However, the line can be further customised by changing the value of one or several of its properties (
Colour) in the Graphs section.
Possible values for
Colour can be changed manually by providing an RGB or RGBA value, i.e.
AA corresponding to the value of the red, green, blue and alpha channel of the colour, respectively.
Each value consists of two hexadecimal digits between
For example, the blue colour used for the first graph has an RGB value of
However, an easier way to change
Colour is by double clicking on the square next to its RGB or RGBA value.
This brings up a colour dialog, from which you can choose the colour you want to use:
In addition to a line, a graph can have a symbol rendered at each of its data points.
As for a line, a symbol can be customised by changing the value of one or several of its properties (
Possible values for
A graph panel can also be customised, but for this you need to switch to the Graph Panel section by clicking in the top-right of the Graphs section. This brings up a context menu allowing you to switch between the Graphs and Graph Panel sections:
Many aspects of a graph panel can be customised and that includes various types of colours, styles, widths, etc., as well as whether the legend should be shown, a logarithmic scale used for the X and/or Y axes, etc., as illustrated by running
Note that you can specify some default settings for graphs and graph panels by clicking on the button in the tool bar, or by selecting the
Preferences... menu item and then the SimulationExperimentView section:
The plotting area offers several features that can be activated by:
Ctrland holding the right mouse button down, and moving the mouse around.
Shiftand holding the left mouse button down, and moving the mouse around.